and the following. I will describe the battery production process and mentioned the respective environmental impact of each particular step. Step one, The mining of raw materials, the raw materials required for the battery surprise surprise depends on the particular chemistry, and as I've explained in the last episodes, there are a couple of different chemistries currently used. None of these chemistries is an undisputed champion, as all of them have different strengths and weaknesses. Some chemistries, for example, have higher power or higher efficiency, but therefore they come with higher safety risk and so on. And so on. By the way, you can tell the chemistry by the abbreviation. Maybe you've come across something like l f p l c o l m o l c n Whereas the L usually stands for the film The Sea for Cobalt, the end for Nickel A for L. A mini, um, and so on and so on to break it down. As for the raw materials, we need lissome cobalt, nickel, aluminum, copper and, to some extent, a couple of other materials, such as various synthetics or graph it. The mining of these raw materials requires heavy machines and excavators, which in turn consume energy and might be powered by internal combustion motors. So, yeah, since some of the materials can only be found in specific parts of the world, the transportation of these materials might be an issue, too. As for the following numbers and figures that referred to an article that is linked in the show notes. According to this article, the total greenhouse gas emissions of the mining and transportation of raw materials some up to 65 kg per kilowatt hour battery capacity. Therefore considering the critical but our battery pack of the Nissan Leaf, for example, the mining and transportation of the raw materials alone produces approximately 1.9 tons of CO two emissions per battery pack. Now let's address all of the raw materials separately. Lease um uh, This is mostly mined in Salt Lakes in Argentina and Bolivia, and it contributes approximately five of the 65 kg co two emissions curricula with our battery capacity in all of my sources, it is said that we won't run out of leads, um, in the near future, well, at least in the near future. But the price for lease, um, is expected to rise with increasing demand. Nevertheless, since museum seems to be the most important component of all of the Alicia my own batteries, there have been huge investments to increase the lesion capacity. Probably the most controversial material at the moment is cobalt. It is partly minds under terrible working conditions such as child labour and high safety risk, and, moreover, leads to an exploitation of the African states Congo, which is where 50% of the global cobalt supply comes from. And also it is relatively scars. But again, not all chemistries depend on cobalt. And given the fact that there might be a scarcity problem, more and more scientists and R and D departments are working towards the chemistry that requires less or no cobalt at all. Nevertheless, according to Bloomberg, there will be serious scarcities of cobalt already next year, so in the early 20 twenties. Therefore, this is the material with the higher with the highest probability of its price to rise. The estimated contribution to greenhouse gas emissions of mining and transporting cobalt is 5 kg Co two curriculum, our better capacity, apparently copper causes the most pollution in its mining and transportation. Its contribution is about nine kilogram co two per kilowatt hour battery capacity. Nickel is to some extent also relatively scars, and it takes quite some effort to mine it, as you have to take quite deep to generate it. The main nickel supply comes from Russia, and the estimated impact is 5 kg co two Emissions Miracle of an hour Aluminium causes approximately 6 kg, but it has a high potential for recycling. So maybe some future reductions of its pollution and to complete the raw materials required for battery pack. We also have to consider the container that holds the battery cells in place, the battery management system and the cooling system and all other required materials, some up to an additional 35 kg youtuber kilowatt hour battery capacity.